Preheat the oven to 180°C (350°F). Grease a 9x13 inch baking dish with ghee or butter.
In a bowl, mix 250 grams of finely chopped pistachios with 1 teaspoon of ground cardamom and 2 tablespoons of sugar. Set aside.
Unroll the filo dough and cut it to fit the baking dish. Keep the filo dough covered with a damp cloth to prevent it from drying out.
Place one layer of filo dough in the greased baking dish and brush it with melted ghee or butter. Repeat this process for 8 layers of filo dough.
Spread half of the pistachio mixture evenly over the filo layers.
Add another 8 layers of filo dough, brushing each layer with melted ghee or butter.
Spread the remaining pistachio mixture over the filo layers.
Finish with 8 more layers of filo dough, brushing each layer with melted ghee or butter.
Using a sharp knife, cut the baklava into diamond or square shapes.
Bake the baklava for 45-50 minutes, or until golden brown and crisp.
While the baklava is baking, prepare the sugar syrup by combining 1 cup of sugar, 1/2 cup of water, 1 tablespoon of lemon juice, and 1/2 teaspoon of rose water in a saucepan. Bring to a boil, then reduce the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.
Once the baklava is baked, remove it from the oven and immediately pour the sugar syrup evenly over the top. Allow the baklava to cool completely before serving.